Finnish Vitamin D Trial (FIND)

FIND started in September 2012. It is a 5-y trial of the benefits (and possible risks) of vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of major chronic diseases, their risk factors and self-rated health among men >59 y and women >64 y from the general population who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Although several large RCTs are ongoing, FIND is the only trial in the northern latitudes and one of the few RCTs with two different vitamin D doses. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on health in a populationwith little to no UVB-exposure from the sun for most of the year.

The 2500 participants that started the study were randomized into three groups: 1) 40 μg of vitamin D3, 2) 80 μg of vitamin D3, or 3) placebo. A representative subgroup of 551 subjects were invited to visit the UEF Kuopio campus for more detailed investigations (Tables 1&2). Compliance, use of non-study drugs or supplements, diet, development of endpoints, and cancer and CVD risk factors are assessed by yearly questionnaires, which can be either filled online or mailed to the study group.

Data on disease outcomes and use of prescription medicines is also obtained by record linkage to the national registries. After the trial, the follow-up for major chronic disease events as well as for mortality will continue from for a minimum of 10 y. The mailing of the year 3 study forms and the supplements for the year 4 were started in September 2015.

The FIND trial is funded by the Academy of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Juho Vainio Foundation and Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research. The recruitment for participants starts in early 2012. The FIND is lead, organized and conducted by the Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, at the Kuopio Campus of the UEF, and various research groups at the UEF will be involved. The FIND trial study team includes investigators also from the University of Helsinki, University of Turku and from the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. International collaboration is provided by Dr. JoAnn E. Manson from the Harvard Medical School, Dr. Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson from the University of Massachusetts, Dr. Elina Hyppönen from the University of South Australia and by Dr. Adrian Martineau from the Queen Mary University of London.

The appropriate approvals for the FIND have been obtained from the Ethics committee of the Kuopio University Hospital (decision #30/2010) and from the National Institute for Health and Welfare that administers the health registries (decision #THL/1608/5.05.00/2014). FIND is also registered at the Clinical Trials register (NCT01463813).

Researchers involved in the project

Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, MD, PhD, Professor of Epidemiology, Co-PI

Sari Voutilainen, PhD, nutritional epidemiologist, Adjunct Professor, Co-PI

Jyrki K. Virtanen, PhD, Adjunct professor of Nutritional Epidemiology, Co-PI

Jaakko Mursu, PhD, nutritional epidemiologist

Tarja Nurmi, PhD, biochemist

Other researchers and advisory board*

Antti Aro, MD, PhD. Emeritus Professor, nutritional epidemiologist, National Institute for Health and Welfare.*

Heikki Kröger, MD, PhD. Professor of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Kuopio University Hospital. PI of the OSPRE trial.*

Christel Lamberg-Allardt, PhD. Head of Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki.*

Marjo Tuppurainen, MD, PhD. Adjunct Professor, Bone and Cartilage Research Unit, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.*

Pekka Mäntyselkä, MD, PhD, Professor of General Practice. Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, UEF, Kuopio.*

Sakari Suominen, MD, PhD, Professor of Public Health, University of Skövde Sweden.*

Matti Uusitupa, MD, PhD. Emiritus Professor, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.*

Tommi Tolmunen, MD, PhD, Adjunct Professor of Adolescent´s Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.

Soili Lehto, MD, PhD, Adjunct Professor in Experimental Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Medicine and Clinical
Research Center, UEF.

Elina Hyppönen, PhD, Professor of Nutritional and Genetic Epidemiology, University of South Australia, Adelaide, and Honorary Professor of Epidemiology, University College London, UK.

Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, PhD, Associate Professor of Epidemiology. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH. Professor of Medicine and Professor of Women’s Health at Harvard Medical School, Chief of the Division of Preventive Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. Co-PI of the VITAL and WHI trials.