Academic research in Lab Animal Centre

2R-research = Reduction and Refinement -alternatives

3R's principle (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement =korvaaminen, vähentäminen ja hyvinvonnin edistäminen) is the leading practice in laboratory animal use.  2R -researchs and other practices focus on increasing the welfare of lab animals by improving their housing environment and experimental procedures. The research in LAC is lead by professor Timo Nevalainen.


The effects of intra-cage aspen tube on cardiac morphology and gene expression: H-M Voipio, I H E Kasanen, H Leskinen, T Mäkinen  and T Nevalainen. Lab Anim 2010;44:184-191

Impact of aspen furniture and restricted feeding on activity, blood pressure, heart rate and faecal corticosterone and immunoglobulin A excretion in rats (Rattus norvegicus) housed in individually ventilated cages: N Kemppinen, J Hau, A Meller, K Mauranen, T Kohila and T Nevalainen. Lab Anim 2010;44:104-112.

Ethics of feeding: the omnivore dilemma: Kasanen IHE, Sorensen DB, Forkman B, Sandoe P. ANIMAL WELFARE 2010,Vol 19 (1): 37-44

The diet board: welfare impacts of a novel method of dietary restriction in laboratory rats: I H E Kasanen, K J Inhilä, O M Vainio, V V Kiviniemi, J Hau, M Scheinin, S M Mering and T O Nevalainen. Lab Anim 2009;43:215-223.

The effect of dividing walls, a tunnel, and restricted feeding on cardiovascular responses to cage change and gavage in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Kemppinen NM, Meller AS, Mauranen KO, Kohila TT, Nevalainen TO. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2009 Mar;48(2):157-65

A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization: I H E Kasanen, K J Inhilä, J I Nevalainen, S B Väisänen, A M O Mertanen, S M Mering and T O Nevalainen. Lab Anim 2009;43:138-148

Pair housing of rabbits reduces variances in growth rates and serum alkaline phosphatase levels: T O Nevalainen, J I Nevalainen, F A Guhad and C M Lang. Lab Anim 2007;41:432-440

Role of cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity in perception of animal care noise: H-M Voipio, T Nevalainen, P Halonen, M Hakumäki and E Björk. Lab Anim 2006;40:400-409

Environmental modification and agonistic behavior in NIH/S male mice: nesting material enhances fighting but shelters prevent it: Kaliste EK, Mering SM, Huuskonen HK. Comp Med. 2006 Jun;56(3):202-8

Estimates of appropriate number of rats: interaction with housing environment: S. Mering, E. Kaliste-Korhonen and T. Nevalainen. Lab Anim 2001;35:80-90

Cost-benefit analysis of animal experiments

In order to justify the harm caused by experiments to animals, the benefit from the experiment must be higher than the harm caused to animals. To evaluate the necessity of animal experiment, Cost-benefit analysis has been developed.