Laboratory measurements and analyses 

Laboratory measurements and analyses include tests related to e.g. forests nutrition cycles, trees' nutrition intake, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of soil, organic compounds in trees and wood, characteristics and properties of wood and frost-hardiness of trees.

Requests for laboratory analyses must be submitted electronically to the Head of Laboratory:

Below are descriptions for analyses that can be executed at the School of Forest Sciences laboratories for plant, soil and wood specimen. Additionally, our laboratory staff is capable of executing tailor-made analyses for the needs of researchers and other customers. Tailor-made analyses require intensive participation of the researcher or customer to ensure that the selected analyses serve the purpose of the customer. All tailor-made requests are to be discussed and agreed on in detail upon submitting a request for analyses.

Plant samples


Frozen  -20 °C or -80 °C
Dried in room temperature


Drying in 40 °C and grinding
More detailed instructions for pretreatment according to customer's needs

Chemical analyses

Element analysis following acid extraction treatment:
- Wet combustion in HNO3-H2O2
- Suspension analysis by plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Elements that will be analysed: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, [Si], Zn, Ti. Ability to perform also analyses for Sb, V, W.

CN (Variomax Cube)

Organic compound analyses

Gas chromatography (GC)

Physiological analyses

Frost-hardiness analysis by impedance equipment
Water potential analysis by pressure chamber equipment

Soil samples


Frozen  -20 °C 
Dried in room temperature


Drying in 40 °C
Air-drying in room temperature, well aerated space
Roots will be removed from dried humus samples and samples will be grinded
Dried mineral soil samples will be sieved

Physiological analyses

Grain composition by dry sieving
Specific area measurement by water or nitrogen adsorption
Soil water absorption by pressure disc equipment

Chemical analyses

pH analysis from water suspension, wet or dry sample 1:2
pH analysis from saline suspension (0.1M KCl tai 0.01 M CaCl2)
Ignition loss at 550 °C, organic matter in percentage
Element assay by acid treatment:
- Wet combustion in HNO3-H2O2
- Suspension analysis by a plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Elements that can be analysed: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, [Si], Zn, Ti, (Sb, V, W).

CN elements (Variomax Cube)

Plant assimilable nutrients:
- Ammonium acetate extraction in pH 4.65, analyses by ICP-OES

Wood samples

- ITRAX X-ray analyses: tree ring density profile from which it will be possible to analyse average density, spring wood density, summer wood density and minimum and maximum density for tree rings: tree ring width, spring wood width and summer wood width. Ultrathin tree rings (width a lot under 1 mm) may be problematic for the analyses.


- Wood discs that are sawn from wood core to surface as 3-5 cm in thickness, can be further processed with precision saw into 5 x 5 mm pieces for X-ray analyses. Sample moisture content will be standardised in a climate chamber (at least for two weeks in 12% humidity) before the X-ray analyses. 

- Fiber Tester -analyser: average fibre length and width; fibre form factor and length mass; and fibre length and width distributions in desired ranges such as 0.2-0.5-1 etc. 


- Wood disc, or a part of it, from which tree ring samples can be removed for fibre analyses (for example 1-2 tree rings to ensure sufficient sample).